Museum Tusculanums Forlag bruger cookies for at huske dine indstillinger. Ved at bruge sitet accepterer du dette. Accepter cookies
Nyhedsbrev   Print siden   

Gotfredsen, Anne Birgitte & Tinna Møbjerg
Nipisat - a Saqqaq Culture Site in Sisimiut, Central West Greenland

2004, 243 sider, indb
19,5 x 27 cm
ISBN 978-87-635-1264-0
Serie: Monographs on Greenland | Meddelelser om Grønland, vol. 331
ISSN 0025-6676
Serie: Man & Society, vol. 31
ISSN 0106-1062

Vejl. pris298 DKK  46 $  40 €  36 £
Onlinepris238 DKK  36 $  32 €  29 £

Tegn abonnement

▼ Din mening
▼ Kunder, som har købt denne titel, købte også

Fås også som e-publikation

From 1989 to 1994, more than 200 m2 were excavated at the Saqqaq site of Nipisat, situated on a small island 15 km south of Sisimiut. The excellent preservation conditions for organic material, and the fact that some of the stone artefacts were not previously known from the Saqqaq Culture, were the main reasons for the excavation. More than 70,000 bone fragments, 20,000 flakes and 1,000 artefacts were recovered.

A total of 33 dates, making this site one of the best dated in the entire Arctic, reveal that Nipisat was occupied continuously for nearly 1,500 years. Although protruding bedrock disturbed the stratigraphy and several lenses of crushed shells interrupted the layers, three different chronological phases could be identified. Phase 1 is dated by eight 14C dates ranging from 2020 to 1740 BC (cal). Phase 2 partly overlaps, but is mainly younger than phase 1 and dated by five 14C dates to 1860-1325 BC (cal). Phase 3 is dated by 16 14C dates to 1310-810 BC (cal). One date was very young (520 BC (cal)) and problematic because of extreme oscillations of the 14C curve. From phase 1 there is a mid-passage structure with a box-hearth. A ring of flagstones surrounds the structure. From phase 2 there is a well-defined box-hearth. There was no clear outline of a tent ring surrounding the hearth, which could be due to later disturbances in phase 3. No dwelling structures were recognised from phase 3. Instead several sherds of soapstone were recorded, indicating the use of blubber for light or cooking. From phase 1 and 2 the tool types are well known from other Saqqaq sites in Greenland and Arctic Canada e.g. small harpoon endblades, projectile points, knife blades, scrapers, burins etc. and needles, flint flakers, harpoon heads, wedges etc. But from phase 3 previously unknown types were recorded. A new tool kit for sea mammal hunting is seen in the very sturdy harpoon or lance head made of antler. In addition there are many different kinds of barbed leisters or spears. New types of bevelled harpoon heads, bevelled knife blades and bevelled projectile points, all made of killiaq (silicified slate), were also registered.

The faunal assemblage of Nipisat yielded 28,823 identified bone fragments representing at least 42 species of fish, birds and mammals. The fish remains, comprising c. 2% of the faunal material, consisted nearly entirely (98%) of fairly large sized cod (Gadus morhua). The bird remains comprise c. 47% of the material and derive from at least 24 bird species. Gulls are the dominant group (c. 54% of the bird remains) followed by eider ducks (Somateria spp.) (24%) and Branta spp. (13%) presumably barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), while auks (Alcidae) were found in lower frequencies. The most spectacular finds, however, were skeletal remains of subadult great auks (Pinguinus impennis) from the oldest phase. A total of 60 presumed whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) remains constitute the hitherto largest, northernmost and oldest occurrence in Greenland. At least 14 mammalian species were identified revealing a surprisingly large proportion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) (51% of the mammal remains) for a coastal site. Seals accounted for 45%, with the common seal (Phoca vitulina) as the absolutely dominant component. Other marine mammals were walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), which played an important but minor role. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hunting was documented by the presence of four fragments from the youngest phase. Saqqaq people were accompanied by fairly large and robust dogs (Canis familiaris).

Nipisat, the first larger Saqqaq site to be excavated from the Open Water Area was a coastal site and through all occupation phases the game animals of the surrounding waters and fjords were hunted. For more than a millennium, the site was visited briefly from time to time, at least during spring, summer and early autumn. Staging geese were captured during spring. In June and July the breeding birds were exploited for their eggs and easily accessible young, as documented by large numbers of juvenile gull bones in particular. The common seal hunting specialised on immature individuals caught primarily during their first summer on the breeding grounds. The inhabitants at Nipisat also hunted caribou on the mainland. The age structure and sex distribution of the caribou remains primarily reflect stalking. Selected body parts, especially the fore and hind legs and the heads, were transported to the island for raw material, meat filleting and further processing for marrow extraction and fat rendering.

The exploitation of fauna through the entire occupation period was remarkably constant with respect to choice of game animal and the selected age groups. Although eiders were more abundant in phase 1 (36%) than in phase 3 (17%) while gulls increased from 43 to 61% in the same time period. The same trend was found valid for geese, which increased over time while the importance of auks decreased. Harbour porpoise seem to have decreased while walrus increased in relative importance through time. Caribou seem to be of greater importance in phase 3 with 55% compared to 45% in phase 1. The slight shift in preferred resources may be explained by fluctuating abundance and availability of the game species combined with the development of new hunting tools.

Based on the new investigations in the Sisimiut District, the gap between Saqqaq and Dorset Culture in Central West Greenland has been diminished. Although resource exploitation at the site seems to have been very stable through all three phases, there are aspects of cultural change bridging the transition from Saqqaq to Dorset Cultures. The introduction of bevelled tools, sturdy harpoon or lance heads and the abandonment of the bow and arrow in phase 3, show cultural affiliation with Dorset technology. This is also true in terms of lithic raw material preference, the introduction of soapstone artefacts and the absence of dwelling structures with a well-defined box-hearth. At the same time it looks like, the central occupation area for the Saqqaq Culture shifted southwards from the Qeqertarsuup Tunua area towards Sisimiut and Nuuk.

Emneområde | Arkæologi |
Specifikt emneord | Artefakter | Bopladser | Udgravning | Zooarkæologi |
Verdensdel m.v. | Grønland |
Sprog | Engelsk |


Pressen skrev

Alle udgivelser af

Anne Birgitte Gotfredsen som forfatter

Nipisat - a Saqqaq culture site in Sisimiut, central West Greenland
2004, ISBN 978-87-635-2626-5, e-publikation
Nipisat - a Saqqaq culture site in Sisimiut, central West Greenland
2004, ISBN 978-87-635-2626-5, e-publikation

Tinna Møbjerg som forfatter

Nipisat - a Saqqaq culture site in Sisimiut, central West Greenland
2004, ISBN 978-87-635-2626-5, e-publikation
Nipisat - a Saqqaq culture site in Sisimiut, central West Greenland
2004, ISBN 978-87-635-2626-5, e-publikation

Indlæg offentliggøres med navn og e-mail. Forlaget forbeholder sig ret til at redigere og udelade indlæg.
Kunder, som har købt denne titel, købte også
Hunting, fishing and animal husbandry at The Farm beneath the Sand, Western Greenland     Enghoff, Inge Bødker
Hunting, fishing and animal husbandry at The Farm beneath the Sand, Western Greenland

Ancient harp seal hunters of Disko Bay     Meldgaard, Morten
Ancient harp seal hunters of Disko Bay

The Southernmost People of Greenland - Dialects and Memories     Vebæk, Mâliâraq
The Southernmost People of Greenland - Dialects and Memories

Denmark-Greenland in the twentieth century     Kjær Sørensen, Axel
Denmark-Greenland in the twentieth century

Care and conservation of manuscripts 7     Fellows-Jensen, Gillian & Peter Springborg (red.)
Care and conservation of manuscripts 7

Museum Tusculanums ForlagRådhusvej 192920 Charlottenlund
Tlf. 3234
CVR: 8876 8418

Bank: Danske Bank, 1092 København KBIC: DABADKKK 1551Kontonr.: 000 5252 520IBAN: DK98 3000 000 5252520 er en e-mærket netbutik, og derfor har du altid adgang til e-mærkets gratis Forbrugerhotline, når du handler hos os.

©2004–2020 Museum Tusculanums Forlag. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. Ved brug af dette site anerkender og accepterer du, at indholdet på dette site tilhører MTF eller tredjemand fra hvem MTF afleder sine rettigheder, samt at indholdet er ophavsretligt beskyttet og ikke må anvendes uden forudgående skriftlig samtykke fra MTF. Du anerkender og accepterer yderligere, at varemærker, kendetegn, varenavne, logoer og produkter vist på dette site, er beskyttet og ikke må anvendes uden forudgående skriftligt samtykke fra MTF.

Handelsbetingelser Juridiske betingelser Behandling af personlige oplysninger