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Seaman, Paul & Bjørn Buchardt
The columns of ikaite tufa in Ikka Fjord, Greenland

2006, 39 s., hft.
Illustreret
21 x 28 cm
ISBN 978-87-635-1274-9
Serie: Monographs on Greenland | Meddelelser om Grønland, vol. 340
ISSN 0025-6676
Serie: Geoscience, vol. 44
ISSN 0106-1046



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In Ikka Fjord in Southwest Greenland, tufaceous material is found associated with ikaite (calcium carbonate hexahydrate) over alkaline submarine springs. Ikaite tufa forms where mixing of alkaline spring water and cold seawater leads to supersaturation and instant precipitation. The submarine springs are fed by meteoric water that was percolated through a carbonatite cored, alkaline ring complex, known as the Grønnedal-Ika complex, belonging to the rift-related Proterozoic Gardar episode. The Ikka tufa structures grow into a variety of forms, predominantly columns known as Ikka columns, many up to 18 m high. Distribution and form of the tufa deposits and the submarine environment in Ikka Fjord have been mapped for the first time using echo-sounder traverses, lines of side-scan sonar imagery and seismic profiles from a ‘pinger’ sediment profiler. The maps show the extent of Ikka tufa development and distributional trends within the deposits. Hundreds of observations and photographs made by divers within the fjord, together with the maps, have enabled us to classify the tufas into five morphotypes: columns, fin-like structures, mounds, and hard grounds. Many of the tufas are arranged into lines and clusters. GIS analysis has revealed that the outcrop of the Grønnedal-Ika Complex, the proximity to stream mouths and bedrock exposures all control the distribution of the tufa deposits. Field observations have also shown that carbonatite dykes passing under the fjord are influencing Ikka column location. Where ikaite tufas form in abundance, maps of their distribution also indicate the pattern of submarine springs about the fjord bed.

 
Emneområde | Arktiske studier |
Emneord | Geologi |
Specifikt emneord | Geokemi | Ikait | Mineralogi |
Verdensdel m.v. | Grønland |
Sprog | Engelsk |

Indhold

Introduction • 5 Geological setting • 6 Formation of ikaite tufas • 8 Dating the Ikka columns • 12 Mapping the ikaite occurrences in Ikka Fjord • 14 Results • 18 The environment of Ikka Bund • 18 The nature of the tufa deposits in Ikka Bund • 20 The rate of ikaite precipitation • 25 Distribution of Ikka tufa about the bed of Ikka Bund • 25 Discussion • 28 Ikka columns • 28 Spatial distribution of the Ikka columns • 29 Are we likely to find other examples? • 32 Are the Ikka columns unique? • 33 Conclusions • 35 Acknowledgements • 35 References •

Samtlige udgivelser på forlaget med -

Paul Seaman som forfatter

The columns of ikaite tufa in Ikka Fjord, Greenland
2006, ISBN 978-87-635-3063-7, e-publikation
The columns of ikaite tufa in Ikka Fjord, Greenland
2006, ISBN 978-87-635-3063-7, e-publikation
 

Bjørn Buchardt som forfatter

The columns of ikaite tufa in Ikka Fjord, Greenland
2006, ISBN 978-87-635-3063-7, e-publikation
The columns of ikaite tufa in Ikka Fjord, Greenland
2006, ISBN 978-87-635-3063-7, e-publikation
 


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