In "Frozen Flows in von Trier’s Oeuvre", Torben Grodal argues that his theory of mental ﬂow and its aesthetic impact may be used to explain Trier’s oeuvre. Grodal ﬁrst brieﬂy sketches how art ﬁlms in general – Trier’s ﬁlms in particular – are characterised by a block of that mental ﬂow from perception to action that is typical of mainstream ﬁlms by means of stylistic and narrative devices. He then argues that Trier’s childhood traumas and Jewish background made such frozen forms especially attractive. Grodal further analyses Trier’s oeuvre chronologically and shows how the ﬁlms become increasingly narrative on the way. He analyses how Trier uses elements from mainstream cinema framed by art ﬁlm techniques, for instance metaﬁctional devices, optical distortions, handheld cameras, and experiments with lighting ﬁlters. Grodal also explains why Trier often uses symbols of gigantic social systems like the third Reich, Europe, or USA to portray individuals that have become victims of destiny, and how dealing with and portraying normal interpersonal relations is a project that controls much of Trier’s work.